Understanding Preeclampsia: Signs and Symptoms

Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs, typically the liver and kidneys. It usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation and can pose risks to both the mother and the unborn baby. While the exact cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, several factors such as genetics, immune system dysfunction, and inadequate blood flow to the placenta are thought to contribute to its development.

Signs and Symptoms

Recognizing the signs and symptoms of preeclampsia is crucial for early detection and management.

Common symptoms include:

  • Persistent high blood pressure
  • Swelling in the hands and face
  • Sudden weight gain
  • Headaches
  • Changes in vision
  • Abdominal pain

Additionally, protein in the urine, often detected during routine prenatal check-ups, is an important diagnostic marker of preeclampsia. It’s vital for pregnant women to communicate any unusual symptoms to their healthcare providers promptly.

While preeclampsia can affect any pregnant woman, certain risk factors increase the likelihood of developing this condition. These include a history of preeclampsia in previous pregnancies, high blood pressure, obesity, multiple pregnancies (twins, triplets, etc.), and certain underlying health conditions like diabetes or kidney disease. Although prevention is challenging, regular prenatal care, a healthy lifestyle, maintaining a balanced diet, staying physically active, and adhering to the prescribed prenatal vitamin regimen can help reduce the risk and severity of preeclampsia.

Preeclampsia is a potentially serious pregnancy complication that requires careful attention and management. Early detection and appropriate prenatal care are essential to ensure the well-being of both mother and baby.

By understanding the signs, risk factors, and preventive measures, expectant mothers can work closely with their healthcare providers to navigate preeclampsia and achieve a healthy pregnancy outcome.

For more information, please consult our team of Obstetricians. To book an appointment, call 1800 419 1397.

Immunization: 5 Reasons Why It Is Not A Matter Of Choice

Immunization, also known as vaccination, is one of the most effective and important methods to protect against infectious diseases. Immunization works by stimulating the body’s immune system to produce antibodies that can fight off specific infections. These antibodies provide long-lasting protection against diseases, often for a lifetime, and can help prevent the spread of contagious illnesses.

Here are five key points to understand why immunization can’t be a matter of choice.

  1. Immunization saves lives: Vaccines have been successful in preventing serious diseases such as polio, measles, and tuberculosis, which have historically caused significant morbidity and mortality. By vaccinating people against these diseases, we can save millions of lives each year.
  2. It is safe: Vaccines are thoroughly tested and approved for use by regulatory bodies globally. The vaccines used in immunization programs are highly safe and effective, and the risks of serious side effects are very low.
  3. Immunization protects the community: When enough people are vaccinated against a disease, it creates herd immunity, which helps protect those who cannot receive vaccinations for medical reasons or who are too young to receive them. This also helps to reduce the spread of disease in the community, making outbreaks less likely to occur.
  4. It is cost-effective: The cost of vaccination is far lower than the cost of treating someone who contracts a vaccine-preventable disease. Immunization not only saves money on treatment but also reduces the number of hospitalizations, doctor visits, and missed workdays due to illness.
  5. Protection for Travel: Immunization is essential for travel, especially to certain countries where diseases such as yellow fever, typhoid, and hepatitis are prevalent. Many countries require proof of immunization against certain diseases before allowing entry.

In conclusion, immunization is essential for preventing the spread of deadly diseases, protecting communities, and saving lives. It is a safe and cost-effective way to keep individuals healthy and prevent the spread of diseases. Vaccination is a crucial public health measure, and it is important for everyone to be aware of its benefits and get vaccinated on time.

Birth from the Lens of A Midwife

The 10 Most Essential Aspects of Midwifery

One extremely powerful moment in a woman’s life is the birth of her baby. To nurture and grow a new life in the womb and eventually birth a human is an enriching process. It transforms the woman’s mind, body, and soul. It also leaves an imprint on all who witness the surging flow of events as they support the mother-to-be through those nine months.

Who is a Midwife? 

The word “Midwife” means being “with a woman.” At the very core of the Midwifery Philosophy lies this valuable tenet – to be with a pregnant woman at every step. Through centuries, the profession of Midwifery has changed in many ways, yet the concept of being “with women” has remained constant. Every mother around the globe longs for care and a helping hand during the birth of her baby. This fact guides the pathways of care that midwives engage in.

Midwifery in Today’s Day and Age

Professional Midwives are clinically trained, duly qualified and equipped with competencies to support pregnancy, birth, and post-birth care. Midwives practice the art and science of supporting the normal physiology of pregnancy and childbirth. They do so with evidence-based, safe and women-centred care.

Apart from being specialists in facilitating normal births, Midwives also manage many common obstetric complications that may arise. They work in collaboration with Obstetricians to provide holistic care to women.

Midwives listen to women’s voices and choices and trust their innate ability to give birth with confidence. They provide high-quality care for pregnant women and help them make the best decisions for themselves and their families. Midwifery care has ten most crucial characteristics:

  • The Midwifery Model of Care is sustainable, low-cost, high-quality and evidence-based.
  • It facilitates a natural, gentle start to the birth process by boosting love hormones and natural pain-relief hormones, thus keeping fear and anxiety at bay.
  • Midwives provide informational support to mothers so that they can understand their bodies and their babies and get in tune with their natural instincts.
  • Midwives make the mother feel emotionally, spiritually, and physically empowered by giving them the right knowledge at the right time, thus encouraging them to go through the journey in the most natural way possible.
  • Their continuity of care model encompasses supporting physiological and psychological needs and promoting mobilisation throughout labour and birth, thus using gravity to aid the baby’s journey through the birth canal.
  • They facilitate the mother and the baby to have a beautiful lasting bond by encouraging skin-to-skin contact and delayed cord clamping right after birth.
  • Midwives diligently support the golden hour after birth, encouraging early breastfeeding initiation.
  • Midwifery care reduces the use of medical interventions during labour and birth.
  • Women under midwifery care are more likely to have a vaginal birth and experience higher satisfaction with their birth experience.
  • Mothers are less likely to have a cesarean section or require medications for pain relief. Evidence also supports that midwife-led care lowers the risk of pre-term and stillbirths.

Over the years, research has revealed that every woman can benefit from a Midwife. Midwives trained to global standards are highly skilled and have the expertise to handle 87% of essential care required for women and newborns.

A humane approach throughout, ongoing informational support for the mother, the couple, and the family, essential clinical observations, and decision-making motivating mobilisation and use of alternative pain-relief measures keeps the wheel of a trust-based relationship moving. That is how Midwives ensure a blissful, fulfilling and satisfying birth experience.

To learn more about our Midwifery services, visit www.fernandezhospital.com/bogulkunta/services/midwifery

Prenatal Infections in Pregnancy

Women are vulnerable to certain infections during pregnancy. If the infections are left untreated, they may become severe and develop further complications. They might affect you and your baby adversely. However, these can be prevented by taking a few preventive measures and making certain healthy choices.

What are Prenatal Infections?

Prenatal infections, also known as maternal infections, are caused during pregnancy or childbirth. These are primarily viral or bacterial infections that can be transmitted to the baby from the mother during pregnancy, labour, or shortly after birth. Such conditions increase the risk of preterm birth or health complications in the baby.

Types of prenatal infections

Prenatal infections are divided into two categories:

  • First category: It consists of infections that are acquired during pregnancy. TORCH-O stands for toxoplasmosis, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex, and other infections like chicken pox and zika virus, etc. These infections have a high possibility of passing onto your baby through the placenta.
  • Second category: These infections can be passed onto the baby through the birth canal. These include group B streptococcus, Hepatitis B virus, and HIV.

Implications of prenatal infection on pregnancy

Prenatal infections can cause various complications, including preterm birth, delayed development of the foetus, physical malformations, and sometimes pregnancy loss.

Infections that occur early in the pregnancy result in worse outcomes. TORCH-O infections are responsible for 2 to 3% of all congenital disorders. If diseases like HIV and Hepatitis B get transmitted to the baby, they might persist for a lifetime.


Pregnancy needs to be monitored with the help of a maternal foetal medicine specialist. Early and prompt treatment can reduce the risk of complications. Most mothers can be treated with medication, however, sometimes the infection cannot be treated, and proper rest and hydration are recommended.

Depending on the condition, the baby may require immediate medical attention or care in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The newborns should also be immunized to prevent transmission of diseases like Hepatitis B.

Tips to prevent prenatal infections.

  • Regularly wash your hands with soap and water. This is especially important after using the washroom, preparing raw meat and vegetables, and playing with children.
  • Cook meat until it is well-cooked.
  • Don’t consume unpasteurized or raw dairy products.
  • Don’t share eating utensils, cups, and food with others.
  • Reduce contact with saliva and urine from babies and young children.
  • Avoid changing cat litter and keep your distance from wild or pet rodents.
  • Practice safe sex and get tested for sexually transmitted infections.
  • Make sure your vaccinations are up to date.
Please get in touch with your consultant to learn more about prenatal infections and their prevention.

Induction of Labour: Important things to know

For many mothers having a natural birth is a dream. Despite all the pain, they find the experience rewarding and empowering. Mothers with low-risk pregnancies choose natural birth to avoid possible risks and be in charge of their birthing journey. Chances of natural birth increase if a mother gets into labour spontaneously.

However, birthing is not always straightforward. What if a woman needs early delivery either because of medical complications or if her baby is not growing appropriately before spontaneously setting into labour? Does that shut down the chances of having a normal birth? Is a caesarean section the only option for her? The answer is ‘no.’ Induction of labour comes to the rescue in such cases.

Labour Induction

What is the Induction of Labour?

Labour induction is the process of artificially prompting the uterus to contract during pregnancy before labour begins on its own for a vaginal birth. Usually, the labour starts when a woman completes her term, that is, between 37 and 42 weeks of pregnancy.

Reasons for inducing labour

Some of the major reasons for the induction of labour are:

  • The woman is overdue (41 weeks and beyond)
  • Her water breaks without getting contractions
  • If the mother has medical problems like hypertension, gestational diabetes, or other medical complications.
  • The baby is not appropriately grown for that period.

Process of Induction of labour

Assessing the baby’s well-being before starting induction through a cardiotocograph is crucial. Once the process of inducing starts, the mother and baby will be closely monitored, and the labour progress will be periodically assessed. The process takes 24-48 hours, depending on the response. The primary purpose of Induction is to soften and dilate the cervix so that membranes around the baby can be broken.

Methods of Induction

    Either medical or mechanical methods are used to perform induction of labour.

  • Medical method: Medically induced labour is done by either placing pessary in the vagina or gel in the cervix. Oxytocin or Pitocin are given intravenously to induce labour or strengthen the contractions.
  • Mechanical method: In the mechanical process, a Foley catheter is placed in the cervix that causes the cervix to dilate. Then it is inflated with normal saline/ distilled water. Foley bulb induction is a safe way to promote cervical dilation in pregnancy when required.

If the cervix does not dilate sufficiently using one method, other methods may be used. However, the chances of vaginal birth decrease as the number of procedures required for induction increases. A caesarean section is performed if one/ all methods fail (that is, there is no progress of labour) or if any risk factors develop.

Cervical Cancer: Benefits of an Early Diagnosis

Globally, cervical cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer among women. However, early screening and primary prevention can help decrease the burden on healthcare and mortality rates. The thought of cervical cancer is particularly alarming for women since it is one of the major causes behind all cancer-related deaths among women. According to WHO, “cervical cancer is caused by sexually acquired infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Most people are infected with HPV shortly after the onset of sexual activity”.


However, if detected early, most cervical cancer cases can be managed well. During the initial stages, there are no signs to tell a woman that she may be at risk. There are many tests used for diagnosing cervical cancer. Some such tests are:

Cervical Smear Test

The PAP smear test is the most common test to detect early cell changes leading to cervical cancer. It involves collecting a sample of cells from the cervix.

By looking at the smear, experts can confirm whether the cervix is normal, healthy, or abnormal. The presence of abnormal cells suggests that cancer may develop in the future.

How is it done?

The smear test is a simple outpatient procedure where the gynaecologist scrapes some of the cells from the cervix (the neck of the uterus) and smears it on a glass slide for examination.

After the test

  • It takes 3-4 days to get the results from the lab. If the smear test is standard (as it is in most cases), it should be repeated after three years.
  • If the test discloses some “abnormalities,” this usually means that some changes have occurred in the cells, which, if left untreated, could develop into cancer after many years. Remember, most women who have had an abnormal smear test are successfully treated.
  • Once treatment starts, it will be necessary to repeat the test after some months. If the subsequent smear tests are regular, then the tests should be done every three years.
  • If the subsequent smear tests are not regular and continue to show some abnormalities, it will be necessary to investigate further.



A Colposcopy examination is an outpatient procedure, just like a smear test. It is an in-depth examination of the cervix through a special microscope called a colposcope. A colposcope acts like a magnifying glass with light, allowing the doctor to look closely at the cervix.

How is it done?

Colposcopy is usually indicated when the routine cervical screening test, i.e., Pap smear test, has picked up abnormal cells from the cervix.

A solution is applied to the cervix, which will cause the affected areas to turn white. The cervix is then viewed through the colposcope, placed just outside the vagina. If there are any abnormal areas on the cervix, a tiny tissue sample is taken (biopsy) and sent to the lab for further testing.

After the test

Some tissues are taken from the cervix; you may experience mild cramping or light bleeding for a few days, which can be relieved by any anti-inflammatory medication. It is advisable to abstain from sexual intercourse for a few days after a biopsy.

When to get the test done?

  • Women between the ages of 20 – 60 should do the test every three years.
  • Women who have excess / recurrent attacks of vaginal discharge or bleeding after sexual intercourse.
  • It should be done within ten days of the onset of periods.
For more information, please consult our team of Gynaecologists. To book an appointment, call 1800 419 1397.

Type I Diabetes and Pregnancy: Few Important Things to Know

Type 1

What is Type I Diabetes?

Diabetes is a medical condition in which our body is unable to control the level of sugar in the blood properly. Type I diabetes is severe diabetes mellitus, a condition in which our body requires insulin daily as the lack of insulin increases the sugar level in blood and urine. Basically, this is insulin-dependent diabetes.

Type I Diabetes and Pregnancy

If you are a diabetic and if you have conceived or are trying to conceive, it is necessary to keep your diabetes in control to have a healthy pregnancy. This protects your baby from any adverse effect.

What are the Symptoms?

  • Increased thirst
  • Excessive urination
  • Increased hunger
  • Dry mouth
  • Weight loss
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Blurred vision

What are the Risks?

Women with Type I diabetes can have a healthy pregnancy and baby, but it’s critical to keep an eye on diabetes complications that may worsen during pregnancy.

  • Macrosomia: Also known as foetal obesity, macrosomia is a medical condition in which the baby grows too large, making it difficult for vaginal birthing.
  • Growth restriction: The baby may not grow at the normal rate if the mother has Type 1 diabetes.
  • Growth acceleration: The baby may grow at a faster rate than the normal development.
  • Birth defects: A baby born to a mother with uncontrolled diabetes may suffer from a variety of birth defects.


Healthy Plate

Here are some tips to manage your Type I diabetes better!

  • Meal planning: You should plan your meal and maintain proper timings of meals throughout the day. You should eat three meals which should be small and around one to three snacks daily.
  • Include fibre: Have adequate fibre intake in the form of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.
  • Avoid sweets: Avoid having sweets or items containing sugar, honey, jaggery or any other sweetener.
  • Do physical activity: You should engage yourself in mild physical activities like walking, swimming etc., as advised by the Doctor/ Physiotherapist
  • Check glucose level frequently: Monitor the glucose level frequently as it will help you to know whether your blood sugar level is normal or not. In addition, keep a proper record of the test results.
  • Take insulin: Some women may need extra insulin to keep the glucose level normal. In that case, you must take insulin as recommended by your doctor which is not harmful to your baby.

For more information, please talk to our team of Nutritionists and Dieticians. Call 1800 419 1397.

Tips for Prevention and Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

Among Indian women, breast cancer ranks high in prevalence. An alarming number of young women are being diagnosed with it, and India is predicted to soon have the world’s highest annual incidence rate.

Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

What can you do to protect yourself from this disease?

  • Exercise: Women who exercise for 30 minutes, three to four times a week, lessen their chance of developing breast cancer.
  • Breastfeeding: Reduced risk of breast cancer is associated with breastfeeding.
  • Maintaining a Healthy Weight: Women with a weight gain of more than 25 kg from their weight at age 18 have a higher chance of developing breast cancer than women who have kept a stable weight.
  • Weight Loss after Menopause: Women who lost 10 pounds or more after menopause compared to their weight before menopause had a lower chance of getting breast cancer.
  • Refrain from drinking alcohol: Studies have shown that women who have even one or two drinks per day significantly increase their chance of developing breast cancer. Drinking any amount of alcohol raises endogenous oestrogen levels, which may contribute to the onset of breast cancer.
  • Eat Right: Antioxidants are helpful, therefore eating lots of different fruits and vegetables (at least two cups worth) is recommended. Plant meals are rich in minerals, vitamins, and phytochemicals, and there is evidence that these compounds work together to increase an individual’s natural resistance against cancer. Whole grains, beans, berries, papaya, carrots, melons, cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, brussels sprouts), dark leafy green vegetables (spinach, mustard greens etc.), peppers, flaxseed, garlic, grapes/grape juice, green tea, soy products, and tomatoes are all excellent choices for lowering one’s risk of developing cancer.

Brest Cancer Screening

Screen Regularly

If detected early, breast cancer may be treated successfully in 100% of cases. Early detection of breast cancer can be achieved by self-examinations once a month, annual medical exams, and mammograms. A monthly self-breast exam is recommended beginning as early as age 20. If there is a history of breast cancer in the family, screenings should begin early.

Understanding how to screen for breast cancer is important. Changes in breast size or shape, the appearance of lumps in the breasts or underarms, or unusual changes to the skin or nipple should prompt a trip to the doctor.


10 Ways to Prepare for a VBAC

If you had a previous C-section birth, it is natural to assume that all subsequent pregnancies will also end up in a C-section. You may be oblivious to the possibility of experiencing a natural birth the next time. You might be afraid of uterus rupture and further harm to yourself. The scars from your surgery may have been more emotional than physical. But what if we tell you that you can put all these apprehensions at rest? You don’t have to undergo a C-section every time you give birth. Any kind of harm to your uterus is rare, traceable, and preventable. You can hope, plan, and work towards experiencing – a normal, physiological birth.

‘Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Section’, also known as VBAC, brings much hope for mothers. Simply put, it means giving birth through your vagina after previously having undergone a cesarean section.

Ten aspects of a successful VBAC

A successful VBAC is usually associated with fewer complications than a repeat C-section. Doctors and midwives will help you prepare and opt for it based on your health and pregnancy. While you can’t control every element of it, here are ten aspects you can focus on to increase your chances of having a successful VBAC:

  1. Work towards a healthy lifestyle even before you plan your pregnancy.
  2. Attend a pre-pregnancy counselling session with your doctor and midwife.
  3. Make sure you do not have any nutritional deficiencies or severe medical issues when planning a pregnancy.
  4. Eat right and stay active throughout the pregnancy.
  5. If you are anaemic, diabetic, or if you develop hypertension, work with your doctor and midwife collaboratively on resolving these health issues during pregnancy.
  6. Talk to your doctor or midwife and provide details about your previous birth.
  7. Identify your VBAC eligibility and seek the best possible support from your doctor or midwife.
  8. Stay in regular touch with your care provider once you prepare for a VBAC.
  9. Choose a facility that is well equipped to run a dedicated clinic for women considering a VBAC.
  10. Ensure your doctor or midwife continuously monitors your baby’s heart rate.

Benefits of a VBAC

Studies show that vaginal births after Caesarean sections have a success rate of 60 to 80 per cent. VBAC helps you avoid risks associated with multiple C-Sections. The benefits of VBAC also include:

  • Less blood loss and a reduced chance of infection.
  • Shorter hospital stay.
  • Quicker return to daily activities.

When you undergo a C-section, it’s not just a cut through your belly. There’s a surgical cut going through your uterus as well. The obstetrician will lift your baby out of these deep incisions. Unlike this elaborate clinical process, a natural, vaginal birth involves no surgery. Therefore, you avoid the possible complications of surgery.

The best part about a VBAC is that it’s also great for your baby. Birthing through the birth canal results in your baby receiving natural microbiomes; your baby also benefits in other ways such as:

  • Immediate skin-to-skin contact.
  • Better maternal-infant bonding and early initiation of breastfeeding.
  • Successful lactation influencing cognitive development.
  • Better immunity against diseases.

Stay flexible and continue discussing the risks and benefits of VBAC throughout your pregnancy. Your actual birth experience will never be entirely in sync with what you planned or expected. But prepare for what you desire and let your doctor or midwife hold your hand through it all.

Call our dedicated VBAC Clinic numbers to book an appointment

  • Hyderguda: 79956 66 114
  • Bogulkunta: 79956 66 003
  • Banjara Hills (Stork Home): 83740 06 868


5 Tips to Stay Healthy during a Monsoon Pregnancy

Monsoon is perhaps one of the most awaited seasons as it brings relief from the scorching summer heat. However, for pregnant women, monsoon may not be as relieving as is assumed to be. The high humidity and the chances of certain infections may bring in discomfort.

But pregnant women can make the best of monsoon by taking some special care and making some changes in their lifestyle.

Here are five tips to make your monsoon pregnancy a comfortable one:

  1. Clothes
    As the humidity increases during monsoon, people tend to sweat more than summer. Moreover, pregnancy leads to fluctuation in body temperature. So, to stay comfortable, wear cotton clothes that are a size bigger. Cotton will absorb the sweat easily and keep you dry.
  2. Personal Hygiene
    Hygiene is one of the most important factors to remain free from infectious diseases. As monsoon brings rain and the water gets dirty due to sewage, mud etc., it may lead to variety of infections. So, don’t go outside barefoot during pregnancy. Stay indoors as much as possible and if you have to go out, make sure to wash your hands and feet with mild disinfectant soap immediately after returning home.Take bath with Neem water at least once every day during your monsoon pregnancy. It will help prevent various skin problems.
  3. Keep your Home Clean
    It is important to keep your home free from infection. Use good quality mild disinfectants to clean the floors and bathroom. You can even burn dried Neem leaves to keep away flies and mosquitoes.
  4. Stay Hydrated
    During pregnancy, it is very necessary to stay hydrated. Drink plenty of water and make sure to have filtered water only. Unfiltered water carries lots of germs causing varied health problems.
  1. Eat Healthy Food
    Stay away from street foods during monsoon. In fact, avoid having street in general as it may carry different types of germs. As your baby in the womb will receive nutrients from the food you eat, have a healthy and balanced diet.

Follow these to avoid unwanted health concerns during the monsoon season. If you feel severe discomfort, do consult your obstetrician. Have an enjoyable pregnancy journey!